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(Continued)上海外国语大学2002年英语语言文学汉译英--答案
时间:2005-3-30 12:43:34 作者:ginger 点击: 评论

 

 (Continued)

multi-ethnic developing country like ours, it is a must to have the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China. Otherwise, the country will fall into a mess and break up. It will not only fail to realize its modernization but also sink into a chaotic abyss. This is a conclusion drawn by reviewing the modern history of China's development and after analyzing the experiences and lessons of many countries in their development course.

To uphold the Party's leadership calls for improving its leadership. We must follow the basic theory and line of the Party, and strengthen and improve the Party building in an overall and profound manner and in accordance with the requirements of the "Three Represent's". This will enable our Party to be in the forefront of the historical process in which profound changes are taking place in the international situation, to maintain its role as the mainstay of the people of the whole country in the historical process facing up to all kinds of risks and tests at home and abroad, and to remain the strong leading core in the historical process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
After 80 years of development, great changes have taken place in the contingent of the Party members, their status and environment, and the tasks of the Party. Our Party has evolved from one that led the people in the fight for seizing the power nationwide to one that has led the people in exercising the state power and to a party in power for a long period of time. It has developed from one that led the national reconstruction under external blockade to one going for all-round reform and opening-up.
The number of new Party members has increased by a big margin, while cadres of a younger generation have been replacing the older ones, and a large number of young cadres have taken leading positions. This has injected new vitality in and given new challenges, as well, to the growth of the Party.
All comrades in the Party should proceed from the new realities and, in the spirit of reform, study and solve major theoretical and practical issues in Party building, so as to enable it to retain progressiveness and purity, and be full of creativity, cohesiveness, and fighting power.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represent's," we must uphold the Party's ideological line of emancipating our minds and seeking truth from facts. We must carry forward and promote the spirit of practicality, truth-seeking and courage in innovation.
We must go about all the work of the Party and the state creatively and keep enriching and developing Marxism in practice.
Marxism is the fundamental guiding principle for the consolidation of the Party and the development of the country. It also constitutes the common theoretical foundation of the concerted efforts of the people of all ethnic groups. The fundamental tenets of Marxism must never be abandoned, otherwise, we would get lost or come to failure in the pursuit of our cause due to a lack of a correct theoretical basis and ideological soul.
That explains why we must always uphold the basic tenets of Marxism. In terms of theory, Marxism develops with the times. If we dogmatically cling to some individual theses and specific programs of action formulated for a special situation by authors of Marxist classics in the specific historical conditions in spite of the changes in historical conditions and present realities, then we will have difficulty in forging ahead smoothly and we may even make mistakes because our thinking is divorced from reality.
That is one reason why we have remained opposed to dogmatism toward the theory of Marxism. Our Party made mistakes and even suffered serious setbacks in some historical periods. The most important cause for that was the guiding ideology of the Party was divorced from Chinese reality at the time. It was after our Party restored and upheld the ideological line of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts that the Party corrected its mistakes, overcame its setbacks and forged ahead triumphantly by relying on the strengths of itself and the people.
The experience and lessons our Party has in this regard have been reviewed systematically in its Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of the Party and Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of the Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China. These are something that we must never forget. All comrades in the Party must uphold the scientific principles and spirit of Marxism, put changes in the right perspective and sum up fresh experience that people have gained from practice, so as to constantly enrich and develop the theory of Marxism.
Marx, Engels, Lenin and comrades Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping were all shining examples in integrating theory with practice and in making theoretical innovations. Marx and Engels carried out extensive studies of the literature on the theoretical thinking of their predecessors, critically assimilated their theoretical achievements and came up with their own theories far better than those of their predecessors. They had thus created a scientific thinking system for the liberation movement of the proletariat and mankind as a whole. Lenin shed light on the law concerning the imbalance in the economic and political development in the capitalist world. He came to the conclusion that the socialist revolution could succeed first in one or several countries and he led the October Revolution to victory. Integrating the universal truth of the fundamental tenets of Marxism-Leninism with the specific conditions of the Chinese revolution, Comrade Mao Zedong originated the theory of the new-democratic revolution with which he guided the Chinese revolution towards victory and led the Chinese people onto the road to socialism. Comrade Deng Xiaoping reviewed the negative and positive experience in the development of socialism in China and abroad and formulated the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, which has ushered China into a new period of vigorous development of the socialist cause.
The history of Marxism fully shows that the principle of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts leads to great social progress. As social practice continues to develop, we should keep renewing our ideas and make innovations courageously and intelligently in light of practical needs. We should take practice as the sole criterion for testing truth, subject ourselves to the guidance of the Party's basic theory, proceed from reality in everything we do and free ourselves on our own from outdated notions, practices and systems, from the erroneous and dogmatic interpretations of Marxism and from the shackles of subjectivism and metaphysics. We should adopt a scientific approach and make bold explorations in order that we think and act more in line with the objective reality, China's conditions in the primary stage of socialism, and the development of the times.
Our Party has a history of 80 years of endeavour. It has had the great practice of creating and developing Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. It has historical experience, both positive and negative and both Chinese and foreign, in developing socialism. We will be able to make fresh contribution to enriching and developing Marxism as long as we remain in the forefront of the times, base ourselves on the present practice, try to understand the characteristics of the times, study major issues of immediate importance in accordance with the basic theory of Marxism, deepen our understanding of the laws governing the rule of the country by the Communist Party and the development of socialism and human society, and draw upon all scientific and new experience, thoughts and achievements.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represent's," we must uphold the Party's nature of being the vanguard of the working class and make sure it remains advanced. At the same time, in light of economic development and social progress, we must constantly consolidate the class foundation of the Party, expand its popular support and increase its social influence.
The Chinese working class is a product of China's social development, particularly the expansion of large-scale, socialized production since modern times. It has a strong sense of organization and discipline and is firm and wholehearted for revolution. The Communist Party of China has identified itself as a political party of the Chinese working class ever since its founding and has remained the vanguard of the working class, which has laid a solid class foundation for maintaining its advanced nature.
With the development of reform, opening up and modernization, the working class in China has expanded steadily. The qualities of the working class have improved markedly in terms of their political awareness, moral standards, scientific and technical and educational level. It has become more progressive. All this has made the Party's class foundation more solid. With intellectuals being part of the working class, the scientific, technical and academic level of the working class has been raised considerably.
Now we have adopted the basic economic system under which public ownership plays a dominant role in the national economy while other forms of ownership develop side by side. We are shaping a socialist market economy and introducing strategic readjustments to the economic structure. Consequently some workers have changed their jobs. But this has not changed the status of the Chinese working class. On the contrary, this will serve to improve the overall quality of the working class and give play to its advantages as a group in the long run. The Chinese working class has always been the basic force for promoting the advanced productive forces in China. Our Party must remain the vanguard of the working class and unswervingly and wholeheartedly rely on the working class.
The main criterion to judge the nature of a political party is its theory and program. If they are Marxist and represent the correct orientation of social development and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, the party is an advanced one and the vanguard of the working class. Our Party is a product of integration of Marxism-Leninism with the Chinese workers' movement. The emergence of the working class is an essential condition for founding the Party. During the period of democratic revolution, given the social conditions then, most of our Party members came from peasants and other laborers, quite a few from intellectuals and some from other revolutionaries of non-laborers' background. But the theory and program of our Party were Marxist and represented the correct orientation of China's social development. Our Party attached great importance to building up the Party ideologically and persisted in educating and arming all Party members with Marxist theory. It required Party members to join the Party not just organizationally, but first of all ideologically. It gave them guidance as to how to achieve the Party's program and tasks. All these enabled the Party to keep its nature of being the vanguard of the working class.
Since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up, the composition of China's social strata has changed to some extent. There are, among others, entrepreneurs and technical personnel employed by scientific and technical enterprises of the non-public sector, managerial and technical staff employed by foreign-funded enterprises, the self-employed, private entrepreneurs, employees in intermediaries and free-lance professionals. Moreover, many people frequently move from one ownership, sector or place to another, changing their jobs or capacity from time to time. This trend of developments will continue. Under the guidance of the Party's line, principles and policies, most of these people in the new social strata have contributed to the development of productive forces and other undertakings in a socialist society through honest labor and work or lawful business operation. They work together with workers, farmers, intellectuals, cadres and the officers and men of the PLA. They are also working for building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
To build socialism with Chinese characteristics is a great and arduous cause. It calls for the worthy people from all sectors who are loyal to the motherland and socialism to take action and lead other people in pushing forward this cause. The main criteria to admit a person into the Party are whether he or she works wholeheartedly for the implementation of the Party's line and program and meets the requirements for the Party membership. The basic components and backbone of the Party are those from workers, farmers, intellectuals, servicemen and cadres. At the same time, it is also necessary to accept those outstanding elements from other sectors of the society who have subscribed to the Party's program and Constitution, worked for the Party's line and program wholeheartedly, and proved to meet the requirements for the Party membership through a long period of tests. We should try to enhance the ethical standards and political awareness of our Party members through Party education. This will greatly increase the influence and cohesiveness of the Party in the society at large.
The theory on labor and labor value in a capitalist society advanced by Marxist classical writers brings to light the operational features of the capitalist mode of production and its basic contradictions at that time. At present, we are putting in place a socialist market economy. But the conditions we are faced with are quite different from those the founders of Marxism were faced with and studied. In light of the new conditions, we should make a thorough study of the theory on labor and labor value in a socialist society with a view to achieving a better understanding of this theory. It is our fundamental objective of building socialism to ensure our people their prosperity and well-being. With economic development, our people will live a better life and their personal property will increase gradually. In view of this, it is not advisable to judge a person's political integrity simply by whether one owns property and how much property he or she owns.
But rather, we should judge him or her mainly by his or her political awareness, moral integrity and performance, by how he or she has acquired the property, and how it has be disposed of and used, and by his or her actual contribution to the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represent's", we must adhere to democratic centralism, establish and improve the scientific leadership system and working mechanism, give full scope to inner-Party democracy, resolutely safeguard the centralism and unity of the Party, and maintain and continue to enhance its vitality.
Democratic centralism is our Party's fundamental systems of organization and leadership. Our basic requirement and objectives of upholding and improving democratic centralism are to create a political situation in which there are both centralism and democracy, both discipline and freedom, both unity of will and personal ease of mind and liveliness in the Party.
It is imperative to promote inner-Party democracy and give full play to the initiative and creativity of the Party members and Party organizations at all levels. This is an important guarantee for the success of the Party cause. We should take effective measures to ensure Party members their democratic rights, broaden channels for inner-Party democracy and increase their knowledge of and involvement in Party affairs. All major issues in relation to the Party work must be addressed through discussions among Party members and after hearing their views fully.
Effective mechanisms should be set up to make sure that all ideas and suggestions of Party members at the grass-roots level or in Party organizations at a lower level can promptly reach those at a higher level. The Party organizations at a higher level should listen to and collect views from Party members and Party organizations at a lower level so as to ensure that their decisions be made through a more scientific and democratic process. In accordance with the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, case-specific consultations, and decision through meetings, we should improve the internal deliberation and decision-making mechanism of the Party committees, give play to the role of plenary sessions of Party committees, and improve the decision-making procedures of standing committees of Party committees.
All the major policy decisions of a Party committee must be made through discussions by the committee and nobody should be allowed to have the final say alone. We should improve the system of division of work and individual responsibility under the collective leadership by Party committees for greater efficiency. Equal emphasis should be placed on collective leadership and individual responsibility. We should foster people's democracy through the development of inner-Party democracy.
We should strengthen and improve the leadership system of the Party and come up with better leadership and governance modalities in accordance with the principles of stressing the overall interests while coordinating those of all quarters concerned. The purpose is to ensure the core leadership of Party committees while giving full scope to the functions of the people's congresses, central and local governments, the CPPCC, non-governmental organizations and others. The Party committees should strengthen their leadership over the people's congresses, governments, the CPPCC and non-governmental organizations through rational, standardized and institutionalized mechanisms. Meanwhile, Party organizations and Party members who assume a leadership role in these institutions and organizations must implement, without any hesitation, the line, principles and policies of the Party and the decisions of Party committees while performing their duties in accordance with law. Leading officials at all levels must firmly put into practice the guiding principles and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee.
All Party members should enhance their awareness of the principle of democratic centralism, implement the principle to the letter and increase their ability to do so. It is important to learn leadership skills, ways and means that are called for in fulfilling the new tasks in the new situation, and combine the adherence to the Party's leadership with the promotion of people's democracy, performance of duties strictly in keeping with law and respect for objective law. Institution of better systems is vital as it bears on the overall long-term interests and defies constant changes. It is essential to improve the systems underlying democratic centralism, and ameliorate the leadership systems and working mechanisms of the Party so as to provide institutional safeguards for the correct implementation of the principle of democratic centralism. We must resolutely resist the impact of Western political models such as the multi-party system or separation of powers among the executive, legislative and judicial branches.
We should firmly avoid making arbitrary decisions and taking peremptory actions in violation of democratic centralism on the one hand, and weak and incompetent leadership on the other.
With progress in the reform, opening-up and development of a socialist market economy, the social fabrics, economic composition, forms of organization, means of employment, interests of different sectors, and modalities of distribution have increasingly diversified. We should be sober-minded about this and pay attention to the trend. Otherwise, our country would be deprived of cohesiveness. Thus it is of vital importance to upholding the centralized power of the Party and unity of the state and safeguarding the authority of the CPC Central Committee. The guiding principles, development goals, major policies, legal system and important work arrangements, among others, of the Party and the state must be consistent and centralized. No localities, departments and institutions should go their own way. The grass-roots organizations of the Party, which underpin the work of the Party and its effectiveness, should constantly work on their self-improvement in response to the new situation and new tasks.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represent's", we should implement, in an all-round manner, the principle of fostering a contingent of more revolutionary, younger, better educated and professionally more competent cadres and that of giving equal importance to both professional competence and political integrity.
We should deepen the reform of personnel system so as to produce a contingent of high-caliber officials who are capable of assuming important responsibilities and withstanding the test of trials and tribulations.
Cadres are decisive factors, once a political line is decided upon. It is all the more important to have, through training, leading officials who are more politically-minded and good at leading the Party and ruling the country and who pay attention to overall interests. A large number of high-caliber leading officials hold the key to the consolidation and development of China's socialism and its continued prosperity amidst the fierce international competition.
We should adhere to the principle under which the Party should supervise its cadres, improve personnel management, step up the reform of personnel system and manage our human resources in a more scientific, democratic and systematic manner. We should make our human resources management more transparent and ensure people their access to information about recruitment and promotion, and their right to participate in and monitor the process. In this regard, the principle of recruitment and promotion through open and fair competition on the basis of merits should be upheld, and measures to this effect should be adopted so as to encourage officials to work harder and get them prepared for both promotion and demotion. We should improve the supervision of promotion and recruitment of officials and the system and methods for assessing their performance. Resolute measures should be taken to prevent and redress malpractice in the recruitment and promotion work.
The training of young cadres is a strategic task that will ensure the long-term stability of the Party and the state. In order to assume leadership responsibilities, young officials must increase their understanding of Marxism, enhance their political integrity, improve their capacity for serving the people, their judgment of the situation, their understanding of the overall interests, and their ability to handle complicated circumstances.
Party committees at all levels should help and encourage young leaders to temper themselves in harsh conditions or in the forefront of important tasks, and make arrangements for this accordingly.
The advance of our times and development of our undertakings determine that the Party and the state need more and more talented people of various kinds. We must lose no time in training professionals of all kinds, providing them with incentives and giving full play to their capabilities. Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talent and outstanding people can easily come to the fore. Leading officials should have the insight to identify the talents, the resolve to use them, the passion to love them and the ways to get them together and should know how to judge and use people and pool the talents together. They should, with lofty ideals and spirit, guide and inspire various talented people to render meritorious service to the state and the people. At the same time, the leading officials should care for and trust them and do their best to create good working conditions for them. It is necessary to expedite the establishment of an income distribution mechanism which is designed to keep the talented and bring out the best in them so as to put in place a system which guarantees that their rewards are commensurate with their endeavors and contributions. We should, through our work on all fronts, create a climate in which people of talent will come forward in large numbers.
In response to the requirements of the "Three Represent's", we must adhere to the principle that the Party must handle Party affairs and the policy of being strict in Party discipline. Party organizations at all levels must be strict with the Party members in respect of requirement, education, administration and supervision and be firm in rooting out the negative phenomena and corruption existing within the Party.
That the Party must handle Party affairs and be strict in Party discipline is an important guarantee for the maintenance of the Party's progressiveness and purity and for the consolidation of its status as the ruling party. State affairs cannot be well managed without good Party building. So we must be strict in Party discipline. We should have a deeper understanding of the loss of political power by some Communist parties in the world that had long been ruling parties and learn a lesson from them. The longer the Party is in power, the more necessary it is for the Party to strengthen self-improvement, and the stricter it should be with its members and cadres.
Strictness in Party discipline must be implemented in Party building in ideological, political and organizational fields as well as work style and must be truly reflected in all the aspects of education, management and supervision of Party organizations at all levels, all the Party members and cadres. All the Party organizations and members should act in strict compliance with the Party Constitution and other regulations of the Party and observe Party discipline to the letter. Leading cadres at all levels should, while behaving with dignity and making self-examination, self-warning and self-encouragement, always stress study, political awareness and integrity. They should often use criticism and self-criticism as a weapon in waging active ideological struggles and adhere to truth while rectifying mistakes. Party organizations at all levels should strengthen their capability of dissolving their own contradictions, face squarely at and settle existing problems and never avoid or whitewash them.
The Party's work style bears on the image of the Party, the trend of public feeling and the life of the Party. It is essential to strengthen in an all-round way the development of the Party's ideological style, study style, work style, leadership style and the cadres' life style. In light of the new realities, it is necessary to carry forward the Party's fine style, namely, integration of theory with practice, close link with the people and criticism and self-criticism. In the meantime, it is necessary to foster a new style on the basis of summing up new and practical experiences.
All practices that run counter to the requirement of the development of the Party's cause or the interests of the people should be resolutely removed. At present, special attention should be paid to overcoming the state of lethargy and seeking no progress, doing away with the grave alienation from the people and standing firmly against the unhealthy tendency of formalism and bureaucracy. Cadres at all levels must stress practicability and real effects at all times and on all occasions, work with a creative spirit, think and worry about what the people think and worry about, and work faithfully for the good of the people.
All the comrades in the Party must fully recognize, from the perspective of life and death of the Party and the state, the major significance of our fight against corruption and advocacy for clean governance and see through the development of Party's style, the building of a clean government and the battle against corruption. It is essential to have a profound understanding of the long-term, arduous and complex nature of the work against
corruption. Not only is it necessary to be prepared for protracted battles, but also intensify our efforts to address the current issues.
We should adhere to the policy of a comprehensive approach to seek both a temporary solution and a permanent cure and build a solid protective dam ideologically against corruption and erosion. At the same time, we should strive to remove the soil and conditions for the occurrence of corruption through creative institutional measures and work harder to prevent and get rid of corruption at its root. The power in our hands is given by the people. Cadres at all levels are public servants of the people and must be subjected to the supervision by the people and the law. We should, through increased supervision within the Party, by the law and by the people, establish and improve a restrictive mechanism and a supervisory mechanism on the exercise of power in accordance with the law. The key to it is the supervision over leading cadres to ensure that they exercise their power appropriately. All the Party members, the leading cadres in particular, must always be clean, honest and just. They must be able to withstand the test of reform, opening up and being in power, as well as the test of power, money and badger games. They will by no means be allowed to abuse power for personal gains, take bribes or bend the law. Party organizations and leading cadres at all levels must take a clear stand to oppose corruption.
All practices of corruption and corrupt elements shall be found out through investigation without tolerance or lenience. The Party does not allow any hideout for corrupt elements within the Party. We must win the people's confidence with tangible achievements in the building of the Party's style and of a clean government.
All in all, in view of the heavy historical responsibility upon our shoulder and given the impact of international and domestic complexities as well as the test of various risks, it is imperative to constantly strengthen and improve the Party building and temper all Party members into firm Communists. This will enable our Party to forever remain the vanguard of the Chinese working class and that of the Chinese people and Chinese nation at the same time, faithfully represent the development trend of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of China's advanced culture as well as the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people, and serve as the leadership core for the Chinese socialist cause.
IV. Continue to strive for the fulfillment of the basic line and historic mission of the Party
China has entered a new development stage of building a well-to-do society in the whole country and accelerating the socialist modernization drive. All comrades in the Party must be mindful of danger and stay prepared for adversities in times of peace, guard against conceit and impetuosity, continue to push for overall progress in reform, opening-up and the modernization drive and make vigorous efforts to initially achieve socialist modernization by the middle of this century.
The program of a political party is a banner. In every historical stage, be it one of revolution, reconstruction or reform, our Party has never failed to have both a basic program for a given stage, namely, the minimum program, and the maximum program of long-term objectives. We believe in the unity of the minimum and maximum programs.
We firmly believe in the basic Marxist tenet that human society will inevitably move towards communism. Communism can only be realized on the basis of a fully developed and highly advanced socialist society. In the communist society, there will be abundant material wealth, and people will have a very high realm of thought and be able to develop themselves freely and in an all-round way. It must be pointed out, though, that the realization of communism will be an extremely protracted historical process.
In the past, our understanding of this issue was quite superficial and simplistic. As a result of so many years of practice, our understanding of the issue today is much more comprehensive and profound. We may make scientific predictions about the direction in which human society may evolve in the future. But as for how things will develop specifically in the future, the answer to this question should come from practice in the future. We must never deviate from the correct course of progress, but it is neither possible nor necessary to envisage or describe in great details the development course in the distant future. The past experience has fully proven that it will easily lead to unrealistic fantasy. This is something that everyone ought to know full well.
All comrades in the Party should set up a lofty communist ideal, fortify their conviction and spur themselves on by holding to lofty ideological and moral standards. More importantly, they should make unremitting efforts in a down-to-earth manner to realize the Party's basic program for the current stage and put their heart into each single piece of work now. To care about the immediate interests only while forgetting the lofty ideal will result in the loss of direction of progress. But to talk big about the lofty ideal without doing any practical work will get one divorced from reality.
China is now in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come. This is the initial stage of the long historical process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Along with economic development and all-round social progress, the building of socialism in China will enter a higher stage of development when conditions are ripe. All comrades must unswervingly implement the Party's basic line for the primary stage of socialism, consistently concentrate on economic development, stick to the Four Cardinal Principles (keeping to the socialist road and upholding the people's democratic dictatorship, leadership by the Communist Party, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought), press ahead with reform and opening-up, strive for the realization of the basic program of the Party for the present stage and constantly advance the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics into the future.
In keeping with the economic, political and cultural requirements of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, all comrades in the Party and all people in the country should strive to achieve the development goals set for the Tenth Five-Year Plan. We should focus on development through economic restructuring and by relying on reform, opening-up and scientific and technological progress with a view to improving people's living standards and constantly pushing for economic growth and social progress. Efforts should be made to properly balance the relations among reform, development and stability, correctly understand and handle the contradictions among the people and always maintain social stability and unity.
All undertakings to build socialism with Chinese characteristics, and in fact, everything that we do should aim not just at meeting people's immediate material and cultural needs, but also at improving the qualities of the people or an all-round development of the people. This is the essential requirement of Marxism regarding the building of a new socialist society. We will constantly advance the all-round development of human beings based on a higher level of the material and spiritual civilization of the socialist society.
Efforts must be made to enable all people across the country to lead a well-to-do life as soon as possible and to continue to uplift their living standards. The Party's policy to get the population rich must be adhered to. On the basis of economic growth, efforts should be made to increase income for urban and rural residents, constantly improve their living conditions, including food, clothing, housing, transport and daily necessities, improve the social security system, and medical and health facilities, with a view to bettering their life. When some people and some regions get rich first, others will be brought along and through this process, common prosperity of the entire population will be gradually achieved.
It is essential to give full play to the initiative and great creativity of the general public and ensure that they properly manage their own affairs according to law and realize their aspirations and interests. It is necessary to continue to press ahead with the political restructuring, develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist legal system and ensure the full exercise by the people of their rights to democratic election, decision-making, administration and supervision.
Efforts should be made to upgrade the ideological and ethical standards of the entire people, improve their cultural and scientific levels and bring about an all-round development of their ideology and cultural life. We should conduct effective political education, develop education, science and technology, enliven socialist culture and ensure each and every individual full access to education and cultural achievements so as to enrich their spiritual ethos and diversify their cultural life.
It is necessary to enhance balance and harmony between man and nature so that people can work and live in a sound and beautiful ecological environment. We will adhere to the strategy of sustainable development and correctly handle the relations between economic development on the one hand and population, resources and the environment on the other, improve the eco-system and beautify the living environment, and improve public and social welfare facilities. We will try to pioneer a path of civilized development featuring a thriving economy, an affluent life and a sound eco-system.
To advance an all-round development of man is the precondition for and the basis of boosting economic and cultural development and improving the material and cultural life of the people, and vice versa. The more comprehensively people develop, the more material and cultural wealth they will create for society and the better the people's life will be. Conversely, the more adequate the material and cultural life is, the better man will achieve his all-round development. The development of social productive forces, the economy and culture is a historical process of gradual and endless progress. All-round human development, too, is a historical process of gradual and endless progress. The two processes should interact and help each other forward.
Given the new situation, we must continue, on the basis of economic development, to press ahead with the modernization of our national defense and the armed forces, and build up our defense capability with a view to safeguarding our state security and national unity. It is essential to adhere to the fundamental principle of the Party's absolute leadership over the army. We should meet the general requirements of building the armed forces that are "qualified politically and competent militarily and has a fine style of work, strict discipline and adequate logistic support", and follow the military strategy for the new era as our overriding guideline. We should stress the quality of army-building and strengthen our armed forces by relying on science and technology and run the army according to law in an effort to build the People's Liberation Army (PLA) into a strong, modern and revolutionary regular army. We should strengthen the building of our national defense reserves, develop the science, technology and industry of national defense and improve the system of national defense mobilization. We should also continue to consolidate and reinforce the unity between the army and the government, and that between the army and the people.
Comrades and Friends,
Ever since its founding, the Chinese Communist Party has all along held high the great banner of patriotism and waged an epic struggle for the unity and rejuvenation of the country. Since New China came into being, the Chinese communists of several generations have all made unremitting efforts toward the complete reunification of our motherland. Under the principle of "peaceful reunification and one country, two systems", we have successfully resolved the questions of Hong Kong and Macao, both left over from history, and are working hard to seek an early solution to the question of Taiwan and to accomplish the great cause of national reunification. The status of Taiwan as a part of China shall in no way be allowed to change. The Chinese communists are rock firm in their resolve to safeguard state sovereignty and territorial integrity. While we do have the greatest sincerity to work for a peaceful reunification, we cannot and will not undertake to renounce the use of force. We are fully capable of checking any attempt to split China by seeking Taiwan's "independence". It is the bounden duty of the Chinese communists to end the state of separation between Taiwan and China's mainland and achieve the complete reunification of China. Here I appeal to all our compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits and to those overseas: Let's unite and fight against separatism and continue to bring forward the cross-Straits relations and the process of peaceful reunification of the motherland. The complete reunification of China represents the aspirations of the people and is a historical trend that no one and no force could stop.
Comrades and Friends,
The world needs peace. The people want cooperation. Nations aspire for development. Society seeks progress. This is the trend of our times. In the last century, mankind underwent the scourge of two world wars and endured the hardships of the Cold War and confrontation, thus paying a heavy price. The people of China and of all other countries hate to see any new hot war or cold war or turmoil break out in any part of the world, hate to see any country or group of countries pushing hegemonism and power politics and hate to see any further widening of the development gap between North and South or the gap between the rich and the poor. The people of China and the rest of the world all long for a lasting world peace and for a stable and peaceful life. They aspire for a fair and rational new international order and for democracy in international relations. They yearn for common development and prosperity for all and are willing to work together for a better future.
Peace and development are the themes of our times. World multi-polarization and economic globalization are developing despite twists and turns. Science and technology are advancing rapidly. Competition in terms of overall national strength is becoming increasingly fierce. New and profound changes are taking place in the world alignment of forces and the distribution of interests. Up to now, neither of the two questions, i.e., peace and development, has been resolved. The world we live in is still far from tranquil. Peace and development complement each other. World peace is the precondition for enhanced common development of all countries whereas such common development is an important basis for the preservation of world peace. The questions of peace and development are in essence the question of North and South. If developed countries can effectively support and assist developing countries in their economic and cultural development under the principle of equality, justice, reciprocity and mutual benefit and help the latter shake off poverty as soon as possible, there will be an important foundation for the settlement of the issues of peace and development.
Along with all the peace- and freedom-loving people in the world, the Communist Party and people of China have always worked for the lofty cause of promoting world peace and development. In the world's great struggle against Fascism, in the sacred cause of the Asian, African and Latin American people fighting for national independence and liberation, and in the tireless efforts to promote the establishment of a fair and rational new international order, we have always stood on the side of justice and worked in unity with the people of all countries and all the progressive forces in the world.
In the new century, the Communist Party and Government of China stand ready to join hands with all countries and peoples who love peace and crave for development and progress so as to secure an international environment of lasting peace in a common endeavor to push forward the wheel of history toward the magnificent goal.
The purposes of China's foreign policy are to safeguard world peace and promote common development. We adhere to an independent foreign policy of peace. We have carried out friendly exchanges and mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries and treated one another as equals on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence in a ceaseless effort to advance the cause of human progress. The Chinese Communist Party will, under the principles of independence, total equality, mutual respect and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, conduct extensive exchanges and strengthen cooperation with all political parties and organizations in the world and further promote friendship between the peoples and development of rel, , ations between states.
We have all along maintained that countries should abide by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and the universally recognized basic norms governing international relations, the affairs of a country should be decided by the government and people of that country and that matters in the world should be handled by the governments and people of all countries through consultations on the basis of equality. We oppose hegemonism and power politics of all forms. The international community needs to set up a new security concept with mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and collaboration at its core and work to create a peaceful international environment of long-term stability and security. Countries should step up their economic and technical exchanges and cooperation and gradually transform the inequitable and irrational international economic order so that all will win and coexist as a result of economic globalization.
Our world is rich and colorful. The diversity of civilizations is the basic feature of human society and also the driving force behind the progress of human civilization. Respect should be given to the history, culture, social system and mode of development of each individual country. Diversity of the world is a reality that should be recognized. Different civilizations and social systems should enjoy long-term coexistence and draw upon and benefit from each other in the process of competition and comparison and achieve common development while seeking common ground and shelving differences. We will continue to work with the people of all countries for a world of lasting peace and universal prosperity.
Comrades and Friends!
Every struggle that the Chinese people fought during the one hundred years from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century was for the sake of achieving independence of our country and liberation of our nation and putting an end to the history of national humiliation once and for all. This great historic cause has already been accomplished. All endeavors by the Chinese people for the one hundred years from the mid-20th to the mid-21st century are for the purpose of making our motherland strong, the people prosperous and the nation immensely rejuvenated. Our Party has led the entire Chinese people in carrying forward this historic cause for fifty years and made tremendous progress, and it will successfully attain the objective through hard work in the coming fifty years.
The young people of all ethnic groups in China represent the future of our country and nation and the hope for prosperity and development of our cause. It calls for your efforts, young people, to accomplish the grand cause of socialist modernization and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party and people have ardent expectations of you. It is hoped that you love your country and your people, stand high and aim far, broaden your vision and give full play to your intelligence and wisdom on the broad arena of reform, opening-up and the modernization drive. You will demonstrate the value of your life and work hard to score accomplishments, thus living up to the expectations of the people and the times.
All that we have achieved has gone down in the annals of history. There is still a long way to go. The realization of truth is a process of continued progress, so is the changing of the world. We shall work unremittingly in pursuit of truth and fight for truth. Under no circumstances should all comrades of the Party stand still and refuse to move forward, nor should they fear hardship and difficulties. All comrades must closely unite with the people of all ethnic groups in China and strive to build our great motherland into a strong, prosperous, democratic and culturally advanced modern socialist country so as to make new and even greater contributions to humanity.
Long live our great motherland!
Long live the great Chinese people!
Long live the great Communist Party of China!